More gruel
Dr. King’s last Sunday Sermon

Dr. King’s last Sunday Sermon

Recalling King’s 1963 “I Have A Dream” speech has become a national liturgy on this day when we remember his life. After he died, King became America’s favorite black man, partly because his absence let us forget the rest of his prophetic legacy. Today, let’s review an excerpt from King’s final Sunday sermon, given just a week before he was assassinated.

In his last days, Martin Luther King was leading a great pivot in the civil rights movement, shifting its emphasis from desegregation to poverty relief. One of the objectives of that new campaign was to finally bridge the race divide that blocked low income whites from joining forces with black Americans of similar circumstance. Nothing he had done up this point had been as alarming to the authorities, and particularly to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, as this pivot toward economic justice. Hoover was convinced that King was finally showing his true, Communist colors. For many like Hoover, the image of disenfranchised whites and blacks joining forces was the sum of all fears.

We forget what a challenging figure King was in his life, both in terms of his insights and his stubborn refusal to grant us comfort. Those who seek to reimagine King as America’s kindly black “uncle” do us all a disservice. Let’s remember him as the courageous warrior he was. Full text of this speech, given on March 31, 1968 at the National Cathedral, can be found at this link.

And one of the great liabilities of life is that all too many people find themselves living amid a great period of social change, and yet they fail to develop the new attitudes, the new mental responses, that the new situation demands. They end up sleeping through a revolution.

There can be no gainsaying of the fact that a great revolution is taking place in the world today. In a sense it is a triple revolution: that is, a technological revolution, with the impact of automation and cybernation; then there is a revolution in weaponry, with the emergence of atomic and nuclear weapons of warfare; then there is a human rights revolution, with the freedom explosion that is taking place all over the world. Yes, we do live in a period where changes are taking place. And there is still the voice crying through the vista of time saying, “Behold, I make all things new; former things are passed away.”

Now whenever anything new comes into history it brings with it new challenges and new opportunities. And I would like to deal with the challenges that we face today as a result of this triple revolution that is taking place in the world today.

Through our scientific and technological genius, we have made of this world a neighborhood and yet we have not had the ethical commitment to make of it a brotherhood. But somehow, and in some way, we have got to do this. We must all learn to live together as brothers or we will all perish together as fools. We are tied together in the single garment of destiny, caught in an inescapable network of mutuality. And whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. For some strange reason I can never be what I ought to be until you are what you ought to be. And you can never be what you ought to be until I am what I ought to be. This is the way God’s universe is made; this is the way it is structured.

The hour has come for everybody, for all institutions of the public sector and the private sector to work to get rid of racism. And now if we are to do it we must honestly admit certain things and get rid of certain myths that have constantly been disseminated all over our nation.

Somewhere we must come to see that human progress never rolls in on the wheels of inevitability. It comes through the tireless efforts and the persistent work of dedicated individuals who are willing to be co-workers with God. And without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the primitive forces of social stagnation. So we must help time and realize that the time is always ripe to do right.

There are those who still feel that if the Negro is to rise out of poverty, if the Negro is to rise out of the slum conditions, if he is to rise out of discrimination and segregation, he must do it all by himself. And so they say the Negro must lift himself by his own bootstraps.

And the irony of it all is that at the same time the nation failed to do anything for the black man, though an act of Congress was giving away millions of acres of land in the West and the Midwest. Which meant that it was willing to undergird its white peasants from Europe with an economic floor.

But not only did it give the land, it built land-grant colleges to teach them how to farm. Not only that, it provided county agents to further their expertise in farming; not only that, as the years unfolded it provided low interest rates so that they could mechanize their farms. And to this day thousands of these very persons are receiving millions of dollars in federal subsidies every years not to farm. And these are so often the very people who tell Negroes that they must lift themselves by their own bootstraps. It’s all right to tell a man to lift himself by his own bootstraps, but it is a cruel jest to say to a bootless man that he ought to lift himself by his own bootstraps.

We must come to see that the roots of racism are very deep in our country, and there must be something positive and massive in order to get rid of all the effects of racism and the tragedies of racial injustice.

Not only do we see poverty abroad, I would remind you that in our own nation there are about forty million people who are poverty-stricken. I have seen them here and there. I have seen them in the ghettos of the North; I have seen them in the rural areas of the South; I have seen them in Appalachia. I have just been in the process of touring many areas of our country and I must confess that in some situations I have literally found myself crying.

Poor people are forced to pay more for less. Living in conditions day in and day out where the whole area is constantly drained without being replenished. It becomes a kind of domestic colony. And the tragedy is, so often these forty million people are invisible because America is so affluent, so rich. Because our expressways carry us from the ghetto, we don’t see the poor.

Jesus told a parable one day, and he reminded us that a man went to hell because he didn’t see the poor. His name was Dives…Dives went to hell because he was passed by Lazarus every day and he never really saw him. He went to hell because he allowed his brother to become invisible. Dives went to hell because he maximized the minimum and minimized the maximum. Indeed, Dives went to hell because he sought to be a conscientious objector in the war against poverty.

There is nothing new about poverty. What is new is that we now have the techniques and the resources to get rid of poverty. The real question is whether we have the will.

In a few weeks some of us are coming to Washington to see if the will is still alive or if it is alive in this nation. We are coming to Washington in a Poor People’s Campaign. Yes, we are going to bring the tired, the poor, the huddled masses. We are going to bring those who have known long years of hurt and neglect. We are going to bring those who have come to feel that life is a long and desolate corridor with no exit signs. We are going to bring children and adults and old people, people who have never seen a doctor or a dentist in their lives.

And I submit that nothing will be done until people of goodwill put their bodies and their souls in motion. And it will be the kind of soul force brought into being as a result of this confrontation that I believe will make the difference.

Yes, it will be a Poor People’s Campaign. This is the question facing America. Ultimately a great nation is a compassionate nation. America has not met its obligations and its responsibilities to the poor.

One day we will have to stand before the God of history and we will talk in terms of things we’ve done. Yes, we will be able to say we built gargantuan bridges to span the seas, we built gigantic buildings to kiss the skies. Yes, we made our submarines to penetrate oceanic depths. We brought into being many other things with our scientific and technological power.

It seems that I can hear the God of history saying, “That was not enough! But I was hungry, and ye fed me not. I was naked, and ye clothed me not. I was devoid of a decent sanitary house to live in, and ye provided no shelter for me. And consequently, you cannot enter the kingdom of greatness. If ye do it unto the least of these, my brethren, ye do it unto me.” That’s the question facing America today.

On some positions, cowardice asks the question, is it expedient? And then expedience comes along and asks the question, is it politic? Vanity asks the question, is it popular? Conscience asks the question, is it right?

There comes a time when one must take the position that is neither safe nor politic nor popular, but he must do it because conscience tells him it is right. I believe today that there is a need for all people of goodwill to come with a massive act of conscience and say in the words of the old Negro spiritual, “We ain’t goin’ study war no more.” This is the challenge facing modern man.

Let me close by saying that we have difficult days ahead in the struggle for justice and peace, but I will not yield to a politic of despair. I’m going to maintain hope as we come to Washington in this campaign. The cards are stacked against us. This time we will really confront a Goliath. God grant that we will be that David of truth set out against the Goliath of injustice, the Goliath of neglect, the Goliath of refusing to deal with the problems, and go on with the determination to make America the truly great America that it is called to be.

I say to you that our goal is freedom, and I believe we are going to get there because however much she strays away from it, the goal of America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be as a people, our destiny is tied up in the destiny of America.

Before the Pilgrim fathers landed at Plymouth, we were here. Before Jefferson etched across the pages of history the majestic words of the Declaration of Independence, we were here. Before the beautiful words of the “Star Spangled Banner” were written, we were here.

For more than two centuries our forebearers labored here without wages. They made cotton king, and they built the homes of their masters in the midst of the most humiliating and oppressive conditions. And yet out of a bottomless vitality they continued to grow and develop. If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery couldn’t stop us, the opposition that we now face will surely fail.

We’re going to win our freedom because both the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of the almighty God are embodied in our echoing demands. And so, however dark it is, however deep the angry feelings are, and however violent explosions are, I can still sing “We Shall Overcome.”

We shall overcome because the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.

We shall overcome because Carlyle is right—”No lie can live forever.”

We shall overcome because William Cullen Bryant is right—”Truth, crushed to earth, will rise again.”

We shall overcome because James Russell Lowell is right—as we were singing earlier today,

Truth forever on the scaffold,

Wrong forever on the throne.

Yet that scaffold sways the future.

And behind the dim unknown stands God,

Within the shadow keeping watch above his own.

With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair the stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.

Thank God for John, who centuries ago out on a lonely, obscure island called Patmos caught vision of a new Jerusalem descending out of heaven from God, who heard a voice saying, “Behold, I make all things new; former things are passed away.”

God grant that we will be participants in this newness and this magnificent development. If we will but do it, we will bring about a new day of justice and brotherhood and peace. And that day the morning stars will sing together and the sons of God will shout for joy. God bless you.


  1. I do apologize for completely de-railing this blog post, but this yet another example of why the Democrats always lose.

    Pure incompetence:

    An excerpt from the article:
    California Assembly Speaker Anthony Rendon said state Democrats “worry a lot about the math problem” in the top-two primary, but he said “we can’t do much” to control the field. California Democrats historically “don’t have the strong types of party control” as exists in other states.

    If you don’t have strong types of party control, then get some.

  2. Slightly off topic: I received my copy of Masterless Men, and have read the Introduction, Chapter 1 and am approx half way through the 2nd. Just before, I read Unshackling America, a history of America from the pre-revolutionary period through the War of 1812. I find the political environment so strikingly similar to the present, that it is unnerving. It appears as if during these periods the Southern elites (plantation owners) basically dictated the national agenda.

  3. “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” has always been my favorite piece of King’s writing. I was reminded of it nearly every Sunday this past football season when people attacked the kneeling players. I wished at least one of them would read it aloud in a press conference later.

  4. Sorry to break up the mood about MLK, but while we have all this sound and fury over the rollback of civil rights, this little nugget flies under the radar.

    Clearly, civil rights are an immensely important issue. I however, tend to believe that extending the conditions to nuke a country slightly more important. Especially when proving a country’s culpability requires a ton of expertise and patience, neither a thing the current regime has demonstrated.

    No wonder the puppet tyrant publicly refuses to state Russia fixed the election.

      1. I would never bet on something like that, Dins, but I do acknowledge that Trump and his hand-picked agency directors, are deliberately misleading Americans on terrorism with seemingly little rebuke from the Republican MoC who clearly know better. Sometimes more damage is done by what is “left out” of an “official” report than what is included. In more responsible times, a president couldn’t get away with something like this. These are not responsible times.

        The Terrorism Report presented by DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen to the Senate Judiciary Committee this week was replete with fear-mongering titles and selective information. This same woman, Ms. Nielsen, is also the staffer who made the decision during Katrina to not prepare despite urgent appeals from LA officials. That lady is now DHS Secretary – the third largest agency in the US Government other than Defense or Veteran Affairs. Guess if you stick around long enough and suck up long enough, your chance of being promoted improves.

    1. Nuclear threats under the control of people who have exhibited callous disregard for broad consequences are concerning. For me, the greater danger is what is happening within our country to undermine the democratic institutions integral to quality of life, personal and national security. We can elect new leaders, but real damage is happening now. Those who are deploying vast sums of personal wealth to promote their personal ideological agendas will remain. The Republican Party is a complicit, active partner and they are steadily implementing changes that will be very difficult to change. Let me state clearly: change to any government program is not what I fear. My fear is the integrity and purpose of those who are making the changes. A greater concern is that people are not connecting the dots. They do not understand how change is occurring, that there is a master plan, and that it is slowly, inexorably being implemented. And, no, I am not a proponent of “the sky is falling”; rather, I am responding to the myriad events that foreshadow a different America – which are not accidental, and which must be stopped.

      I posted on another P.O. topic the title of a new book, “How A Democracy Dies”, that is an imperative read for each of us. I began reading this last night and find it to be frighteningly accurate about events we see unfolding. The authors are eminent scholars on authoritarian regimes – not fear mongers. A sobering, must-read.

      Here are several articles for your consideration on this subject. Connect the dots. They are right in front of us. They are not accidental; they are deliberate. They are death by a thousand cuts – legislative, regulatory, budgetary – to programs that underpin American society. It must stop and each of us must do our part.

  5. I am younger than many of you, so I have no memories of the Civil Rights Era. I was taught it as settled history. In retrospect, many aspects of my early-1990s elementary school education were ahead of their time, in my inauspicious but unusually integrated neighborhood in the burbs of Northern California.

    Well. And here we are.

  6. I have been mulling it over, and I really don’t have an answer.
    How would MLK fare in today’s internet world of 140 (now 280 characters)?

    No doubt his words and ideas would be disseminated so much faster and further, but at the same time, who today would listen to a full speech, and what about the armies of trolls?

      1. You nailed it, Mary. As an illustration, when I was in my first line unit in the Army (1964) many of the whites, from DC or some of the industrial cities in the East, referred to him as “Martin Luther Coon” and comments were made that if only he was dead, none of the problems with the N…… would occur. I know this language is offensive, but that is what I frequently heard, and I in no way mean to offend anyone. Myself, I was a naive boy of 18 just out of high school in an essentially lilly white community, so it was a quick education for me.

        That type of commentary is just an illustration of the inspiration towards better purposes he achieved with some and the hatred others had.

  7. One more MLK quote that remains as true today as it was in the 60s. Thisis why your words are so important, Chris. Disagree, we do, because we talk about complex issues here. But I know all of us agree that “silence” is not a solution about things that matter. Choosing how we speak to these life-challenging issues is a personal decision, but it is important and necessary less we allow our silence to infer positions that we do not believe in.

    “MLK: ““Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter,” said Martin Luther King, Jr. “In the end, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends.”

  8. Thank you for reminding us of the greatness, humility, and deep perceptiveness of King. We continue to learn from him.

    He understood the link between poverty and inequality. He tried to bring poor whites together with maligned, poor blacks in common cause – but, as we know too well – being white and poor was better than joining with poor blacks – because….

    I’d like to offer this thoughtful article on the work of Behavioral Economics leader, Sam Bowles, who from age 11 asked the question of his mother, “why are so many people poor”? He made this issue his life’s work. He’s still committed to raising this issue. From Evonomics: (thank you, Fifty)

  9. Like people forget how radical Jesus was for His time people forget how radical Dr. King was for his time. I wa a child when Dr. King was assassinated. As an adult reading his writings like this sermon I can see a ken sophisticated intelligent mind looking into the future. I have a hard time grasping how people could reject someone like King and embrace someone like Trump. I really think Trump is our Saul for our time. And I mean the Old Testament Saul. A judgement not a blessing.

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